Approaches to metaphor: Structure,
classifications, cognate tendency
HELEN Sixth is v. SHELESTIUK
The article aspires to present a systematized take on the contemporary understanding of metaphor essence and structure, reviews various classiп¬Ѓcations of metaphor, and examines cognate вЂsimilarity-based' phenomena in natural dialect. The other views on metaphor as a three- and twocomponent structure will be reconciled in the article throughout the analysis of diВ¤erent varieties of metaphors. Three types of classiп¬Ѓcations of metaphor вЂ” semantic, strength and functional вЂ” will be speciп¬Ѓed and reviewed. Finally, the article looks at the cognate phenomena, viz. metaphoric personiп¬Ѓcation (prosopopoeia, horrible fallacy, apostrophe), animaliп¬Ѓcation, metaphoric antonomasia, metaphoric allusion, metaphoric periphrasis, synesthesia, allegory, and metaphoric symbolism. Possibly no other intricate semiotic phenomenon has received this kind of a broad theoretic coverage since metaphor. Aristotle, Rousseau, Lomonosov, Hegel, Nietzsche, Cassirer, Ortega-y-Gasset, Ricouer and other prominent thinkers have tapped at the ontological roots of metaphor; in philology and linguistics (including theory of literature, etymology, linguistic pragmatics, and intellectual linguistics) the idea of metaphor has been developed by this sort of deceased and living scholars as A. Kuhn, M. MuВЁller, A. Potebnya, I. A. Richards, Meters. Black, 3rd there’s r. Jakobson, E. Burke, S. Wheelwright, C. Brook-Rose, M. J. Cohen, J. Searle, S. Levin, G. LakoВ¤, M. Meeks, R. Gibbs, A. Paivio, A. Ortony, T. Todorov, U. Environment, V. G. Grigoryev, N. D. Arutyunova, S. Meters. Mezenin, and many others.
Despite the selection of approaches to metaphor as a sensation the thoughts about its nature and framework are essentially alike. Aristotle in his On the Art of Poetry published that one should see commonalities in order to build a good metaphor (Aristotle 1984: 669). His deп¬Ѓnition of metaphor as a Semiotica 161вЂ“1/4 (2006), 333вЂ“343 0037вЂ“1998/06/0161вЂ“0333 DOI 10. 1515/SEM. 2006. 0aa 6 Walter de Gruyter
a couple of
dua puluh enam
(AutoPDF V7 26/5/06 eleven: 28) WDG (148225mm) TimesM J-1534 Semiotica, 161 PMU: S(R) 12/05/2006 pp. 333вЂ“344 1534_161_14 (p. 333)transfer of the noun from one object to a new (within a category from genus to species, from species to genus, and from species to varieties, and from one category to a different by analogy) lay the foundation for the classical deп¬Ѓnition of metaphor as a copy (transposition) of any name associated with an object/ sensation to another object/ phenomenon for the basis likeness between them. This kind of postulate made it possible to view metaphor as being a three-component framework on the example with simile: the primum, secundum, and tertium comparationis (termed by I. A. Richards the tenor, motor vehicle and ground) were presumed to be within metaphor (Richards 1990 : 93). However , metaphor was viewed as a condensed, abbreviated, or elliptic simile, because it is not infrequent that either the name of the tenor or the vehicle are implicit in metaphors, plus the name from the ground can be вЂin absentia' on a regular basis.
Evaluate the similes, where all or at least two components are explicit1: e. g. вЂThy wit is as quick while the greyhound's mouth' (Shakespeare), вЂshe was like a piece of iced-cake that one п¬Ѓnds in a silvered box, in a forgotten cabinet,... thirty years after the voices in the wedding possess faded away' (H. E. Bates), вЂthe men... talking ceaselessly with the dry throaty rattle of pebbles getting rolled straight down a gully' (L. Lee). Of course , in a few structural types of metaphor the vehicle plus the tenor are both present, viz. in вЂquasi-identities' (T is V ), e. g., вЂmen are April when they woo' (Shakespeare), вЂthe earlier is a bucket of ashes' (C. Sandburg); in the types вЂT becomes V': вЂThe river propagate and writhed, and whirled into translucent fans, hissing and...
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Helen Shelestiuk (b. 1964) is Professor at Chelyabinsk State University [email protected] ru4.
and rendering: A natural dialect analysis' (2005).
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