Metaphors Essay

Approaches to metaphor: Structure,

classifications, cognate tendency



The article aspires to present a systematized take on the contemporary understanding of metaphor essence and structure, reviews various classiп¬Ѓcations of metaphor, and examines cognate ‘similarity-based' phenomena in natural dialect. The other views on metaphor as a three- and twocomponent structure will be reconciled in the article throughout the analysis of diВ¤erent varieties of metaphors. Three types of classiп¬Ѓcations of metaphor — semantic, strength and functional — will be speciп¬Ѓed and reviewed. Finally, the article looks at the cognate phenomena, viz. metaphoric personiп¬Ѓcation (prosopopoeia, horrible fallacy, apostrophe), animaliп¬Ѓcation, metaphoric antonomasia, metaphoric allusion, metaphoric periphrasis, synesthesia, allegory, and metaphoric symbolism. Possibly no other intricate semiotic phenomenon has received this kind of a broad theoretic coverage since metaphor. Aristotle, Rousseau, Lomonosov, Hegel, Nietzsche, Cassirer, Ortega-y-Gasset, Ricouer and other prominent thinkers have tapped at the ontological roots of metaphor; in philology and linguistics (including theory of literature, etymology, linguistic pragmatics, and intellectual linguistics) the idea of metaphor has been developed by this sort of deceased and living scholars as A. Kuhn, M. MuВЁller, A. Potebnya, I. A. Richards, Meters. Black, 3rd there’s r. Jakobson, E. Burke, S. Wheelwright, C. Brook-Rose, M. J. Cohen, J. Searle, S. Levin, G. LakoВ¤, M. Meeks, R. Gibbs, A. Paivio, A. Ortony, T. Todorov, U. Environment, V. G. Grigoryev, N. D. Arutyunova, S. Meters. Mezenin, and many others.

Despite the selection of approaches to metaphor as a sensation the thoughts about its nature and framework are essentially alike. Aristotle in his On the Art of Poetry published that one should see commonalities in order to build a good metaphor (Aristotle 1984: 669). His definition of metaphor as a Semiotica 161–1/4 (2006), 333–343 0037–1998/06/0161–0333 DOI 10. 1515/SEM. 2006. 0aa 6 Walter de Gruyter


a couple of






















twenty four


dua puluh enam


twenty eight






thirty four








forty two

(AutoPDF V7 26/5/06 eleven: 28) WDG (148225mm) TimesM J-1534 Semiotica, 161 PMU: S(R) 12/05/2006 pp. 333–344 1534_161_14 (p. 333)transfer of the noun from one object to a new (within a category from genus to species, from species to genus, and from species to varieties, and from one category to a different by analogy) lay the foundation for the classical definition of metaphor as a copy (transposition) of any name associated with an object/ sensation to another object/ phenomenon for the basis likeness between them. This kind of postulate made it possible to view metaphor as being a three-component framework on the example with simile: the primum, secundum, and tertium comparationis (termed by I. A. Richards the tenor, motor vehicle and ground) were presumed to be within metaphor (Richards 1990 [1936]: 93). However , metaphor was viewed as a condensed, abbreviated, or elliptic simile, because it is not infrequent that either the name of the tenor or the vehicle are implicit in metaphors, plus the name from the ground can be ‘in absentia' on a regular basis.

Evaluate the similes, where all or at least two components are explicit1: e. g. ‘Thy wit is as quick while the greyhound's mouth' (Shakespeare), ‘she was like a piece of iced-cake that one finds in a silvered box, in a forgotten cabinet,... thirty years after the voices in the wedding possess faded away' (H. E. Bates), ‘the men... talking ceaselessly with the dry throaty rattle of pebbles getting rolled straight down a gully' (L. Lee). Of course , in a few structural types of metaphor the vehicle plus the tenor are both present, viz. in ‘quasi-identities' (T is V ), e. g., ‘men are April when they woo' (Shakespeare), ‘the earlier is a bucket of ashes' (C. Sandburg); in the types ‘T becomes V': ‘The river propagate and writhed, and whirled into translucent fans, hissing and...

Referrals: Arinstein, Leonid M. (ed. ) (1984). Angliyskaya poeziya v russkikh perevodakh [English

poems in Russian translations]

Aristotle (1984). Poetics. In Collected Works in 5 Volumes, volume. 4, M. L. Gasparov (trans. ).

Arutyunova, D. D. (1976). The Word and Its That means. Moscow: Improvement.

Black, Meters. (1990 [1954]). Metaphor. Theoretically of Metaphor, 153–173. Moscow: Progress.

Dubois, J. (1986). Rhetorique Capo, A. K. Avelichev (ed. ). Moscow: Progress.

Ellmann, Richard and O'Clair, Robert (eds. ) (1973). The Norton Anthology of Modern


Jimbinov, Stanislav B. (ed. ) (1983). Amerikanskaya poeziya v russkikh perevodakh [American

poetry in Russian translations]

Lako¤, George (1993). The contemporary theory of metaphor. In Metaphor and Thought,

2nd education., Andrew Ortony (ed. ), 202–251

Maltsev, V. A. (1980). An Introduction to Linguistic Poetics. Minsk: Vysheishaya Shkola.

Matthiessen, Farreneheit. O. (ed. ) (1950). The Oxford Book of American Verse. New york city: Oxford

School Press.

Mezenin, S. M. (1984). Imanaginative Means within a Language. Moscow: Nauka.

Richards, I. A. (1990 [1936]). The idea of unsupported claims. In Theory of Metaphor, 44–68.

Severskaya, Um. I. (1994). Metaphor. In Essays on the History of the Language of the Twentieth Century Russian Poetry: Tropes in Specific Style and Poetic Terminology. Moscow:


Shelestiuk, They would. V. (2003). Semantics of Symbol. Semiotica 144 (1/4), 233–259.

Tarasova, V. N. (1975). Upon syncretism of metaphor. In Expressive Means in the English Language, 103–117. Leningrad: Progress.

Wheelright, L. (1990). Metaphor and reality. In Theory of Metaphor, 82–110. Moscow:


Helen Shelestiuk (b. 1964) is Professor at Chelyabinsk State University [email protected] ru4.

and rendering: A natural dialect analysis' (2005).


(AutoPDF V7 26/5/06 11: 28) WDG (148225mm) TimesM J-1534 Semiotica, 161 PMU: S(R) 12/05/2006 pp



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